• Study finds trauma effects may linger in body chemistry of next generation (video). PBS News Hour, August 30, 2015. Includes interview footage with Dr. Rachel Yehuda.
  • Can trauma have genetic effects across generations? Interview with Amy Bombay, Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at Dalhousie University, discussing epigenetic transfer of historic trauma and its implications. Day 6 with Brent Bambury, CBCRadio, June 5, 2015.
  • Aboriginal Peoples and Historic Trauma: The process of intergenerational transmission by Aguiar, W. & Halseth, R. (2015) Prince George, BC: National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health. Recognizes that Aboriginal peoples’ experiences are rooted in multigenerational, cumulative, and chronic trauma, injustices, and oppression resulting in disparities that persist across generations.  Also available: Part II: Addressing the Healing of Aboriginal Adults and Families Within a Community-Owned College Model.
  • The Intergenerational Effects of Indian Residential Schools: Implications for the Concept of Historical Trauma by Bombay, Matheson, and Anisman in Transcultural Psychiatry, Volume 51(3), pages 32-338, 2014.
  • Examining the Theory of Historical Trauma Among Native Americans by Kathleen Brown-Rice, The Professional Counselor, Volume 3, Issue 3, pages 117-130, 2013.
  • The Indian Boarding School Era and Its Continuing Impact on Tribal Families and the Provision of Government Services by Ann Murray Haag, 43 Tulsa L. Rev. 149 (2007) Focuses on the impact the removal of American Indian children from their homes had on American Indian culture, both for the immediate generation and successive generations. Explores the  impact on modern government’s ability to effectively provide services to American Indians with a focus on child placement and welfare; addresses potential remedies, both legislative and governmental.
  • A Case Report of Historical Trauma Among American Indians on a Rural Northern Plains Reservation, Journal of Forensic Nursing, Volume 10, No. 2, April-June 2014 by Wende Heckert and Christine Eisenhauer.  Describes nursing interventions and approaches to providing healing opportunities. Excellent reference list. (abstract and purchase available at http://journals.lww.com/forensicnursing/toc/2014/04000)
  • Trauma: Our Genetic Inheritance. A brief explanation of how science now understands Historical Trauma,  with two clips from TED talks included. “Today we know that trauma is not only experienced individually, but shared through generations as well”. Click on the links to the TED talks if you have time, otherwise the article is also worth a brief read.   Also inquires whether PTSD is contagious.
  • Historical trauma affects mental health of today’s Native American by Joaqlin Estus, 90.3 KNBA, March 30, 2015. Includes explanation by psychologist Dewey Ertz of coping mechanisms used to numb the feelings of trauma.
  • The Science of Suffering by Judith Shulevitz, New Republic, Nov. 16, 2014. An excellent survey of the development of the theory of trauma transfer across generations in various cultures, as well as some discussion of different ideas about healing.
  • The American Indian Holocaust: Healing Historical Unresolved Grief by Maria Yellow Horse Brave Heart and Lemyra M. DeBruyn, Journal of the National Center, University of Colorado Centers for American Indian and Alaska Native Health, Vol. 8 No. 2 (1998) , pp 60-82. Seminal article providing the groundwork of analysis of historical trauma from boarding schools in indigenous communities.
  • Phenomenology & Psychobiology of the Intergenerational Response to Trauma by Rachel Yehuda and Jim Schmeidler et al., originally in: Intergenerational Handbook of Multigenerational Legacies of Trauma.  Danieli Y. (1998) This is a leading article in the study transfer of trauma biologically from one generation to another. As the report concludes, “[a]lthough the present studies have not addressed the larger question of the etiology of the intergenerational syndrome, they do provide the first biological validation that the symptoms described by offspring as being related to the Holocaust appear, indeed, to reflect a type of post-traumatic response. The best conclusion from these studies to date is that the offspring of Holocaust survivors may be more psychologically and ‘biologically’ vulnerable to stress and trauma for a host of reasons yet to be elucidated.”
  • Trauma Is Contagious, by Shanley Knox, The Atlantic (Feb. 28, 2014). Through the experiences of a veteran’s significant other, this article explores secondary traumatic stress disorder, where trauma and disturbing experiences are transferred to another individual causing the secondary individual to show post traumatic stress disorder like symptoms.
  • Pregnant 9/11 survivors transmitted trauma to their children by Mo Costandi, The Guardian, 9 September 2011.
  • Is There Intergenerational Transmission of Trauma? The Case of Combat Veterans’ Children by Rachel Dekel and Hadass Goldblatt, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 2008, Vol. 78, No. 3, pp. 281-289.   As described by the abstract. (available for purchase from Wiley Online Library)

Note: These links are provided for information and do not necessarily represent the views of the National Native American Boarding School Healing Coalition.